Focus 1/2018: Measuring impact
On average, 400,000 US dollars and a period of three years is needed to measure the effect of a development intervention, the International Initiative for Impact Evaluation concludes from its activities. These are valuable resources that need to be used carefully. Our authors describe which impact measurement methods have proved to be useful during the last few years and what their strengths and their limits are. And they demonstrate when impact evaluations make sense – and when they don’t. Erfahren Sie mehr
Focus 4/2017: Climate Change
Agriculture is a major contributing factor to climate change; at the same time, it is one of the areas most affected by climate change, which is jeopardising global food security. But is the significance of agriculture also reflected in international climate negotiations? And, after the recent world climate summit, what’s next? Our authors have a look at what progress has been made in the debate, and, taking different examples, they demonstrate how resilience towards climate change can be enhanced not only for agriculture, but also for communities as a whole. Erfahren Sie mehr
Focus 3/2017: Youth
Given that today, two out of five economically active youth around the world are unemployed, or work, but live in poverty, and that alone in sub-Saharan Africa, the youth population is set to double, reaching more than 350 million by 2050, creating income and employment opportunities for these young people is certainly one of the areas in most urgent need of action. We demonstrate initiatives addressing these issues from a wide range of countries throughout the world, and let representatives of development co-operation, politics, the private sector and, last but not least, rural youth give their views. Erfahren Sie mehr
Focus 2/2017: Digitisation
Digital technologies hold a huge potential for poverty reduction and inclusive development in rural areas, as numerous success stories show: recommendations on crop growing and veterinary extension services for farmers, vocational training for rural youth, health and nutrition consultancy for pregnant women and young mothers, mobile banking systems for those without a bank account, the set up of early warning systems …. However, much of the potential of the new technologies still lies in the future, and inherent complexities are often underestimated. We have asked our authors to keep an eye on the practical relevance of the examples they are presenting from their work – no isolated solutions but technologies and initiatives that bear a potential for up-scaling, are (or can be) locally adapted and can above all also benefit small-scale farmers and the young generation, who are more strongly represented in Africa than in any other continent. We also asked them to demonstrate why some solutions that seem promising at first glance are doomed to fail and which areas have a lot to catch up on if the rural digitisation potentials are to be unleashed in a manner that really deserves the attribute ‘inclusive’. Erfahren Sie mehr
Focus 1/2017: Trade and development II: The global dimension
Since the turn of the century, global agricultural trade flows have roughly tripled, reaching 1.2 trillion US dollars in 2015. However, the forecasts for future developments are mixed – also because of uncertainty caused by the new US President’s statements on trade policy. This second part of our trade focus isn’t meant to be a rehash of the familiar “free trade versus protectionism” arguments. But the framework really is different. Climate change, price volatility in the agricultural markets as well as Agenda 2030 all call for a review of how individual aspects relate to one another in the overall context. Erfahren Sie mehr
Focus 4/2016: Trade
In December 2005, the Aid for Trade initiative was launched at the World Trade Organization Ministerial Conference. It was to enable developing countries to draw optimum benefits from global trade by assisting them in overcoming trade-related constraints. Today, just over a decade later, the success of the initiative is given a sometimes very mixed assessment. However, this has not been the case regarding its basic notion that trade can make an important contribution to sustainable economic development and poverty reduction provided that it can be made fair and inclusive. This is also reflected in the Sustainable Development Goals, in which the community of nations resolves to “correct and prevent trade restrictions and distortions in world agricultural markets” (SDG target 2.b), to “increase Aid for Trade support for developing countries” (SDG target 8a) and to “significantly increase the exports of developing countries” (SDG 17, target 11). But it is also borne testimony to in the latest changes in development co-operation policy, which is increasingly focusing on trade and markets. The approaches and instruments applied in the context of agriculture and rural development are presented in this edition of Rural 21. Erfahren Sie mehr
Focus 3/2016: Land Governance
Land is a major source of people’s identities and livelihoods as well as being a key asset for households. Land ownership and land use rights crucially affect both equality of opportunity and economic and environmental stability. It is entirely justified to include these rights in the Sustainable Development Goals and not without reason that the adoption of the Voluntary Guidelines on the Responsible Governance of Tenure (VGGT) attracted so much attention four years ago. Often, land remains the only source of livelihood for poor and marginalised households. Thus improved security of land rights first of all creates secure access to basic necessities such as housing and nutrition. When such needs are met, the poor are more likely to be able to afford education, which helps people exit the vicious cycle of poverty. Erfahren Sie mehr
Focus 2/2016: Rural transformation
A comprehensive societal change is in progress in many rural regions throughout the world. More and more people are moving to the cities, the role of agriculture is diminishing, while the manufacturing and service sectors are increasingly determining economic development. These developments, which shaped the fortunes of the now highly industrialised countries in the nineteenth century and those of the middle-income countries in the late twentieth century, are now confronting many countries of the developing world with major challenges. How can they make this transformation process not only effective and efficient, but also socially equitable and sustainable? Erfahren Sie mehr
Focus 1/2016: Nutrition-sensitive agriculture
The concept of “nutrition-sensitive agriculture” sets out from the assumption that agriculture has a role in providing food security – which means access for all people at all times to sufficient, safe, and nutritious food. However, judging from the number of close to 800 million people who are classified as chronically hungry and an estimated two billion people suffering from micronutrient malnutrition, it would appear that agriculture is not fulfilling this role, or at least not doing so adequately. How can this be remedied? Our authors show how closely agriculture, nutrition and health are linked and take a look at the various entry-points for improving nutrition through agriculture: from the choice of adequate seed systems and breeding programmes through agricultural policy interventions to promoting market access, production diversification und better functioning value chains to capacity building, nutrition education and gender equality. Erfahren Sie mehr
Focus 4/2015: Lessons learnt from Ebola
It is now two years ago that a two-year-old boy in Guinea called Emile caught the deadly Ebola virus and died. In next to no time the disease then spread to the neighbouring countries of Sierra Leone and Liberia. So far, it has infected 25,601 persons and led to 11,300 deaths in the three countries. But these are only the official statistics – the true number of victims is thought to be considerably higher. How could the crisis assume such dramatic proportions? The authors in this edition give accounts of their analyses on Ebola outbreak and response, but also of their personal experiences during their work in the countries concerned. Erfahren Sie mehr
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